Keyword : Classroom Interaction, Teacher’s Questions, and Questioning Techniques Classroom interaction is part of communication among teacher and students occured whithin the classroom. Classroom moments for interaction The most obvious use of a classroom response system is to ask questions to test the knowledge present in a classroom. In my opinion, the use of different classroom interactions among students has a great influence on both learning and teaching. You can learn the subtle things you can do to make your questions more powerful and your classroom interactions with students more fruitful in What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? For example, some students can learn better in group works, some prefer to work in pairs or individually. Questions provide teachers with the ability to check on and enhance student learning. Encourages in-depth conversations among students (and between students and instructor). How Can Disruptive Innovation Impact STEM Education? When it comes to lecturing, I think, teacher ↔ student interaction should be used because the teacher is the source of right information, so s/he ought to conduct the lesson. Otherwise, students might be excluded and, thus bored. Once you figure that out, you’ll notice something else that’s pretty fascinating. Interaction helps learners develop language learning and social skills and so maximising interaction in the classroom is an important part of the teacher's role. So when the teacher makes a decision about classroom interaction, he should take the number of the students into the consideration. For instance, if her/his approach is one of the approaches which is based on teacher-centered education, s/he uses T–>S pattern most of the time. When you’re done, you will be ready to ask questions that challenge assumptions, present new possibilities, and serve as a catalyst for action and change. For example, when only the teacher talk pattern is used, the students become passive and silent and get bored, which affects their interest negatively in the lesson. Therefore, teachers employ different type(s) of questions during classroom interaction due to the uniqueness of each language classroom. Prepare your students for interaction right off the bat. Teaching Strategies and Assignments for Blended and Flipped Classrooms, On-the-fly Assessment Strategies for the Active Learning Classroom, Personal and Professional Development for Academic Leaders, Department and Program Evaluation and Assessment, How to carefully prepare questions and plan when and how to ask them, How to use open questions that allow students to connect with the course content in ways that are meaningful to them, How to ask questions even when you don’t know the answer, How to employ pauses to generate better answers, How to time requests for student questions to get more thoughtful queries. For example; in a large class pair work and group is not very useful and may cause some problems (extreme noise). The aim of the teacher is important, here s/he should know the learning types of the students so as to be able to adjust the lesson according to the majority of the classroom, and also should include the other types of learning not to lose the other students. Individuals are different from each other in terms of their characteristic and learning styles. Classroom interaction is one of the crucial factors in the teaching-learning process. Clarity, wait time, higher order thinking, and higher expectations are factors that influence the quality of teacher interactions with all students, but some factors pertain more specifically to the participation of ELLs. In my opinion, the use of interaction patterns depends on the context of the lesson, so it would be illogical just to use one or two type of pattern mostly. In my opinion, there are many advantages to using more than one classroom interaction patterns during the lesson. Devotes a significant proportion of class time (15-30%) to student interactions. One way that we can show that we value all learning styles is to make certain that we vary our lesson plans so that they include activities that address the different styles. It is the teacher’s duty to find student’s needs and meet them with a proper classroom interaction pattern. The interaction can Qualitative questions directly influence the classroom activities. The usage of interactions can be determined according to the subject and focus of the lesson. ı think interaction patterns should be applied according to the circumstances since we can not say that one of them is always the best. In my opinion we cannot decide on certain pattern to apply in the classroom .I think all classroom interactions should be used equally .Types of classroom interaction changes in terms of student level ,topic of an activity and for the age of students .We learnt that from our Instructional Principles and Methodology course .Teacher should use all kinds of interaction among students. If the answers are “Yes, they do.” and “Yes s/he does.” ; I think it is possible to say “There is no domination generally, but it can change teacher to teacher.”. There are different types of classroom interaction you can use to vary your lesson plan. Effective questions focus on eliciting the process, i.e. What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? I cannot say one of the classroom interaction pattern is the best of classroom interaction patterns. What are some of the advantages of group working? Please give your answers by providing examples. If s/he is qualified enough as a teacher, and if s/he can apply the pattern his/her classes withouth any problem, we can’t force this teacher to use the other patterns only because we think it is good to use all of the patterns. When you ask better questions of your students, your students will start to ask better questions of you. In this 20-minute video, she will share her insights and strategies that you can start using right away. The following objectives and research questions are tested: Objective 1: To analyze the perception of teachers and students about student-teacher interaction. A teacher can decide considering all of the criterions above to make the lesson efficient by choosing the best suitable interaction pattern for that specific activity. Look for what activities the child engages with the most. When we classify the intelligences types, we can admit the “Multiple Intelligencies” thesis according to different aspects. As you kick off the … Lecture is a teacher-to-students pattern (T>Ss) and it is the most important pattern in a class because without giving the necessary information, you cannot go one step further. Also, all students are different. According to me, all of the types of classroom interaction pattern should be used. Another point I want to point out that the reason behind using different types of interaction patterns should be up to the lesson, topic, students’ profile, physical setting of the classroom and of course to the needs of learners. Second-language classroom interaction : questions and answers in ESL classes. Each student learns in a different way. Features several students explaining their ideas to a respectful class that listens well. o they encourage proficient learners to speak more o they allow learners to build on each other's thoughts/responses o they give the teacher an opportunity to test learners' communicative competence. Interaction will not necessarily happen spontaneously, however, and in my view it has to be considered before teaching. Episodes of classroom interaction from video recorded for example, in a grammar lesson, teacher know that s/he should teach the topic and lead the students. As we understood from the example, one pattern will not be adequate for all students in class because students are different from each other and needs different patterns. In the classroom environment, there may be different types of activities, situations or problems of different lessons. Your email address will not be published. A. In parallel to this, we can suppose that the learning styles or strategies can show difference from one student to another in different aspects. The students in our classes will have different learning styles. Role playing is whereby the students take on given role and act out on scene with other. Changing how you use questions requires a few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching methods. For example in teaching pronunciation, Choral Response pattern would be the best for the students because in this pattern, it is possible for every student to repeat the word several times. of open and closed teacher questions. Their interests are different. Also, s/he should use the interaction patterns variably. Other patterns help us enrich the classes and have a variety of activities which is especially important when it comes to foreign language learning as different types of activities make it easier to adopt to the class and consequently, learn more efficiently. Changing how you use questions requires a few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching methods. I am not saying that only one interaction pattern is enough, of course. The English language classroom certainly should become a more varied and interesting environment. For example; pair work can be effective for speaking activity so as to give chance to each student to speak . I also do not think that one method is superior to the others. The qualitative side needed no hypothesis to be made beforehand; it helped a number of patterns (of teacher's questioning behavior and EFL classroom interaction) emerge out of the study data, which will be presented later in this report. Learn the subtle things you can do to make your questions more powerful and your classroom interactions with students more fruitful. Research Question 1: Is there a difference in the perception of teachers and students about the teacher-student interaction? And there’s the rub. As teachers we should be sympathetic about unexpected conditions and we should not restrict learners with nonsense limitations. The teacher should choose the useful patterns for his/her course. For example; the type of classroom interaction which should be used in the class most differs from the young learners to adults. A language teacher should be able to use them if necessary. Ask questions or hold up objects to elicit responses from the children. Because communication is a key factor in language learning. I do think that we should use variety of interaction patterns but what really comes first is the lecture that is the transmission of the information for which we are there to teach students. Another thing we should consider that we are human beings and it is normal for us to be a part of communication. Each pattern should be used when it is needed. Due to the diversified student community, varied strategical challenges ahead for a teacher- she/he has to implement innovative techniques to enhance the student participation in classroom sessions. Thus, using just one type of classroom interaction in the class is not appropriate. CLASSROOM INTERACTION 2. How Would You Handle a Difficult Student? It’s not a secret. Asking questions is an important part of any teacher's daily interaction with their students. If lecturing became student-centred, then some students would get wrong information despite of teacher attention. For instance, pronunciation study requires both choral and individual responses. For instance, the most appropriate way in a writing tas is individual work because the students should concentrate on the task in a silent environment. I mean, classroom interactions should serve the purpose. Effective questioning involves using questions in the classroom to open conversations, inspire deeper intellectual thought, and promote student-to-student interaction. That leads to more engaging discussions and higher levels of learning. We must say that this is an example of “teacher to students” pattern. Some styles will work better than others in different learning situations, but no one learning style is completely perfect. T - Ss: Teacher talking to the whole class, such as in presenting a text, explaining grammar, giving instructions for an activity. If we were asked the most important aspect of learning and teaching, we would obviously say that interaction between teacher and students is an essential part of teaching and learning process. 5 Steps to Promote Social Interaction in the Classroom for Young Children. In short, no matter what pattern type is used, its suitability to the context should be taken into consideration. As we have learned from our course FLE 200, in an effective lesson, all interaction patterns should be present. Student interaction is of prior importance for the current teachers. [Ann C Wintergerst] -- This book analyzes teacher and student interaction in the context of twelve ESL lessons, with the purpose of exploring the extent of student language output. Yet we also know that when you ask better questions, you get better answers. Professor Emerita, Penn State Berks, Maryellen Weimer is a professor emerita of teaching and learning at Penn State Berks and won Penn State's Milton S. Eisenhower award for distinguished teaching in 2005. Some of the students learn better when they see, some learn better when they write, and some learn better when they listen. Uğur Can A. The questions of four ESL teachers in Hong Kong were analyzed. Founded in 1972, Magna Publications serves the higher education community supporting professional development. For instance, if s/he has auditory learners s/he can easily use T >Sts pattern to make his/her lesson effective, on the other hand it is important to consider the other students who have different learning styles. Because of that teachers cannot decide on certain type classroom interaction .Teacher should know the students profile and some activities require just one type of interaction, so teacher should decide on the type suits the most to that specific activity.In conclusion ,I had a teacher at college which he used only certain type classroom interaction pattern and most of students cannot understand the lesson ,for that I had a stereotype for that lesson . The reaction includes a response to a question, an item in a drill, a word pronounced and a sentence written.” (Sarosdy et al, 2006: 35) Interaction in the classroom can occurs when the teacher transfers his or her knowledge to the students and the students transform the information they got, and then construct it based on their understanding, value and application (Dewey, 1916). Questions should play an important role in every classroom–both student questions and teacher questions. 1. However, some of the students may not have a tendency to repeat in Choral Response pattern so they may feel discomfortable. In the classroom environment, there may be different types of activities, situations or problems of different lessons. Any pattern’s dominance should change according to lesson’s focus. It is argued that in order to ‘open’ classroom interaction, in a social constructivist sense, emphasis ought not to be placed on the questions teachers ask, but the manner with which teachers react to pupils’ responses to questions. I think we do have a dominant interaction pattern in the classroom. When answering this question, we should consider that we need clear, multi way, efficient and useful interaction among the all class including teacher. Teacher should know his/her students’ intelligences, interests etc. 5.How should be the effective questioning arranged? Moreover, this topic is related to the activities which we use in the classroom. What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? However, some activities require just one type of interaction, so teacher should decide on the type suits the most to that specific activity. You can find out and start asking them in just 20 minutes. I cannot say one of the classroom interaction pattern is the best of classroom interaction patterns. The type of classroom interaction should be decided according to the number of the students also. The types of teacher talk in classroom interaction divided into seven categories, i.e., 1) accepts feeling, 2) praises or encourages, 3) accepts or uses the ideas of student, 4) asks the questions, 5) lecturing, 6) giving direction, 7) criticizing or justifying authority. Thank you. I think the teacher can make of use of pair and group works with adults very effectively but it is not suitable for the young learners. Asking questions in order to involve students in classroom interaction is the most common technique used by teachers in EFL settings. That’s all. Thus, a teacher should integrate the suitable types of interaction patterns into his / her classroom by looking at the needs of the students to be fulfilled. presents tangible solutions that have worked for other instructors and that can work for you. Here, you can answer our question about Classroom Interaction in ELT. According to you, which one of the classroom interaction pattern should be used in the classroom most or should they be used equally? We can’t talk about any domination of any interaction pattern in class. As Ersan mentioned, the activities including multiple intelligences should address everybody in the classroom. It is important that, we understand the learning styles of the students and value all styles equally. 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